Chiu YM, Hsu HL, Coull BA, Bellinger DC, Kloog I, Schwartz J, Wright RO, Wright RJ. Prenatal particulate air pollution and neurodevelopment in urban children: Examining sensitive windows and sex-specific associations. Environ Int. 2015 Nov 28;87:56-65.
Environ Int. 2015 Nov 28;87:56-65. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2015.11.010. [Epub ahead of print]
Prenatal particulate air pollution and neurodevelopment in urban children: Examining sensitive windows and sex-specific associations.
Chiu YM(1), Hsu HL(2), Coull BA(3), Bellinger DC(4), Kloog I(5), Schwartz J(6), Wright RO(7), Wright RJ(8).
BACKGROUND: Brain growth and structural organization occurs in stages beginning prenatally. Toxicants may impact neurodevelopment differently dependent upon exposure timing and fetal sex.
OBJECTIVES: We implemented innovative methodology to identify sensitive windows for the associations between prenatal particulate matter with diameter≤2.5μm (PM2.5) and children's neurodevelopment.
METHODS: We assessed 267 full-term urban children's prenatal daily PM2.5 exposure using a validated satellite-based spatio-temporally resolved prediction model. Outcomes included IQ (WISC-IV), attention (omission errors [OEs], commission errors [CEs], hit reaction time [HRT], and HRT standard error [HRT-SE] on the Conners' CPT-II), and memory (general memory [GM] index and its components - verbal [VEM] and visual [VIM] memory, and attention-concentration [AC] indices on the WRAML-2) assessed at age 6.5±0.98years. To identify the role of exposure timing, we used distributed lag models to examine associations between weekly prenatal PM2.5 exposure and neurodevelopment. Sex-specific associations were also examined.
RESULTS: Mothers were primarily minorities (60% Hispanic, 25% black); 69% had ≤12years of education. Adjusting for maternal age, education, race, and smoking, we found associations between higher PM2.5 levels at 31-38weeks with lower IQ, at 20-26weeks gestation with increased OEs, at 32-36weeks with slower HRT, and at 22-40weeks with increased HRT-SE among boys, while significant associations were found in memory domains in girls (higher PM2.5 exposure at 18-26weeks with reduced VIM, at 12-20weeks with reduced GM).
CONCLUSIONS: Increased PM2.5 exposure in specific prenatal windows may be associated with poorer function across memory and attention domains with variable associations based on sex. Refined determination of time window- and sex-specific associations may enhance insight into underlying mechanisms and identification of vulnerable subgroups.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID: 26641520 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]