Ginsberg GM, Geva H. The burden of smoking in Israel-attributable mortality and costs (2014). Isr J Health Policy Res. 2014 Aug 29;3:28. eCollection 2014. Erratum in: Isr J Health Policy Res. 2016;5:5. PMID: 25258677.

Isr J Health Policy Res. 2014 Aug 29;3:28. doi: 10.1186/2045-4015-3-28. eCollection 2014.

The burden of smoking in Israel-attributable mortality and costs (2014).

Ginsberg GM(1), Geva H(2).

Author information:
(1)Medical Technology Assessment Sector, Ministry of Health, Jermiahu 39, Jerusalem 9446724, Israel.
(2)Department of Health Promotion, Ministry of Health, Jerusalem, Israel.

Erratum in
    Isr J Health Policy Res. 2016;5:5.

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death, incurring huge resource costs in terms of treating morbidity and lost productivity. This paper estimates smoking attributable mortality (SAM) as health costs in 2014 in Israel.

METHODS: Longitudinal data on prevalence of smokers and ex-smokers were combined with diagnostic and gender specific data on Relative Risks (RR) to gender and disease specific population attributable risks (PAR). PAR was then applied to mortality and hospitalization data from 2011, adjusted by population growth to 2014 to calculate SAM and hospitalization days (SAHD) caused by active smoking. These were used as a base for calculating deaths, hospital days and costs attributable to passive smoking, smoking by pregnant women, residential fires and productivity losses based on international literature.

RESULTS: The lagged model estimated active SAM in Israel in 2014 to be 7,025 deaths. Cardio-vascular causes accounted for 45.0% of SAM, malignant neoplasms (39.2%) and respiratory diseases (15.5%). Lung cancer alone accounted for 24.1% of SAM. There were an estimated 793, 17 and 12 deaths from passive smoking, mothers-to-be smoking and residential fires. Total SAM is around 7,847 deaths (95% CI 7,698-7,997) in 2014. We estimated 319,231 active SAHD days (95% CI 313,135-325,326). Respiratory care accounted for around one-half of active SAHD (50.5%). Cardio-Vascular causes for 33.5% and malignant neoplasms (13.2%). Lung cancer only for 4.6%. Total SAHD was around 356,601 days including 36,049 days from passive smoking. Estimated direct acute care costs of 356,601 days in a general hospital amount to around 849 (95% CI 832-865) million NIS ($244 million). Non acute care costs amount to an additional 830 million NIS ($238 million). The total health service costs amount to 1,678 million NIS (95% CI 1,646-1,710) or $482 million, 0.2% of GNP. Productivity losses account for a further 1,909 million NIS ($548 million), giving an overall smoking related cost of 3,587 million NIS (95% CI 3,519-3,656) or $1,030 million, 0.41% of GNP).

CONCLUSIONS: Smoking causes a considerable burden in Israel, both in terms of the expected 7,847 lives lost and the financial costs of around 3.6 million NIS ($1,030 million or 0.42% of GNP).

PMCID: PMC4164333

PMID: 25258677 [PubMed]

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