Elhai M et al. EUSTAR co-authors. A gender gap in primary and secondary heart dysfunctions in systemic sclerosis: a EUSTAR prospective study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014 Oct 23. pii: annrheumdis-2014-206386. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-206386. PubMed PMID: 25342760.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2014 Oct 23. pii: annrheumdis-2014-206386. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-206386. [Epub ahead of print]
A gender gap in primary and secondary heart dysfunctions in systemic sclerosis: a EUSTAR prospective study.
Elhai M(1), Avouac J(1), Walker UA(2), Matucci-Cerinic M(3), Riemekasten G(4), Airò P(5), Hachulla E(6), Valentini G(7), Carreira PE(8), Cozzi F(9), Balbir Gurman A(10), Braun-Moscovici Y(10), Damjanov N(11), Ananieva LP(12), Scorza R(13), Jimenez S(14), Busquets J(14), Li M(15), Müller-Ladner U(16), Kahan A(1), Distler O(17), Allanore Y(1); EUSTAR co-authors; EUSTAR co-authors.
(2)Department of Rheumatology, Basel University, Unispital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
(3)Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Section of Internal Medicine and Division of Rheumatology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi (AOUC), University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
(8)Servicio de Reumatologia, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.
(9)Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine-DIMED, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
(10)B. Shine Department of Rheumatology, Rambam Health Care Campus, Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.
(12)Institute of Rheumatology, Russian Academy of Medical Science, Moscow, Russia.
(13)U.O. Immunologia Clinica-Centro di Riferimento per le Malattie Autoimmuni Sistemiche, Milano, Italy.
(15)Department of Rheumatology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital (West Campus), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences,Beijing, China.
OBJECTIVES: In agreement with other autoimmune diseases, systemic sclerosis (SSc) is associated with a strong sex bias. However, unlike lupus, the effects of sex on disease phenotype and prognosis are poorly known. Therefore, we aimed to determine sex effects on outcomes.
METHOD: We performed a prospective observational study using the latest 2013 data extract from the EULAR scleroderma trials and research (EUSTAR) cohort. We looked at (i) sex influence on disease characteristics at baseline and (ii) then focused on patients with at least 2 years of follow-up to estimate the effects of sex on disease progression and survival.
RESULTS: 9182 patients with SSc were available (1321 men) for the baseline analyses. In multivariate analysis, male sex was independently associated with a higher risk of diffuse cutaneous subtype (OR: 1.68, (1.45 to 1.94); p<0.001), a higher frequency of digital ulcers (OR: 1.28 (1.11 to 1.47); p<0.001) and pulmonary hypertension (OR: 3.01 (1.47 to 6.20); p<0.003). In the longitudinal analysis (n=4499), after a mean follow-up of 4.9 (±2.7) years, male sex was predictive of new onset of pulmonary hypertension (HR: 2.66 (1.32 to 5.36); p=0.006) and heart failure (HR: 2.22 (1.06 to 4.63); p=0.035). 908 deaths were recorded, male sex predicted deaths of all origins (HR: 1.48 (1.19 to 1.84); p<0.001), but did not significantly account for SSc-related deaths.
CONCLUSIONS: Although more common in women, SSc appears as strikingly more severe in men. Our results obtained through the largest worldwide database demonstrate a higher risk of severe cardiovascular involvement in men. These results raise the point of including sex in the management and the decision-making process.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
PMID: 25342760 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]