Jacobs J, Cohen A, Ein-Mor E, Stessman J. Gender differences in survival in old age. Rejuvenation Res. 2014 Oct 6. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25285463.
Rejuvenation Res. 2014 Oct 6. [Epub ahead of print]
Gender differences in survival in old age.
Jacobs J(1), Cohen A, Ein-Mor E, Stessman J.
Abstract Background: Although increased survival longevity among females is observed throughout much of adult life, supporting evidence among the oldest old is lacking.
Objective: To examine the hypothesis that gender differences in longevity survival diminish with advancing age.
Methods: The Jerusalem Longitudinal Study follows a representative cohort born 1920-21, comprehensively assessed at ages 70, 78, 85, and 90 (n=463, 927, 1224, 673 respectively). Mortality data were collected from 1990-2013. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Mortality Hazards Ratios (HR's) were determined, adjusting for gender, marital status, education, loneliness, self-rated health, physical activity, functional status, neoplasm, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischemic heart disease.
Results: Survival between ages 70-78 was 77.3% (n=358/463), 78-85 was 68.9% (n=635/927), 85-90 years was 71.1% (n=870/1224), and 90-93 years was 80.5% (n=542/673). With advancing age, the survival advantage among females vs. men declined: at ages 70-78 (85.6% vs. 71%, p<.0001), 78-85 (74% vs. 63%, p=.001), 85-90 (74% vs. 67.5%, p=.06), and 90-93 (80% vs. 81%, p=0.92). Compared to females (HR=1.0), the male mortality adjusted HR from ages 70-78 was 2.93 (95%CI 1.75-4.91); ages 78-85 was 2.1 (95%CI 1.5-2.92); ages 85-90 was 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.2); and ages 90-93 was 1.1 (95%CI 0.7-1.8).
Conclusions: Our findings confirm the hypothesis that the increased longevity observed among females at age 70 gradually diminishes with advancing age, and disappears beyond age 90.
Key words: Gender differences, Longevity, Survival, Mortality, Oldest Old, Longitudinal.
PMID: 25285463 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]